Learn more about the brain nutrition benefits of Omega-3 EPA

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  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (UN FAO). Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition: Report of an expert consultation. 2008 Nov; Available from: http://foris.fao.org/preview/25553-0ece4cb94ac52f9a25af77ca5cfba7a8c.pdf
  • The National Academy of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press; 2005. 1331 p. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12449285
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  • Neubronner J, Schuchardt JP, Kressel G, Merkel M, von Schacky C, Hahn A. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in response to long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation from triacylglycerides versus ethyl esters. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb;65(2):247–54. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21063431 
  • Harris WS, Pottala JV, Sands SA, Jones PG. Comparison of the effects of fish and fish-oil capsules on the n 3 fatty acid content of blood cells and plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1621–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18065578 
  • Barrow CJ, Nolan C, Holub BJ. Bioequivalence of encapsulated and microencapsulated fish-oil supplementation. Journal of Functional Foods [Internet]. 2009 Jan 1;1(1):38–43. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464608000078 
  • Germano M, Meleleo D, Montorfano G, Adorni L, Negroni M, Berra B, et al. Plasma, red blood cells phospholipids and clinical evaluation after long chain omega-3 supplementation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nutr Neurosci. 2007 Apr;10(1–2):1–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17539477 
  • Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L, Kuczek T, Grevstad N, Mahon A, et al. EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors. Lipids. 2003 Oct;38(10):1007–21. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14669965 
  • Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and brain, eye and nerve development (ID 501, 513, 540), maintenance of normal brain function (ID 497, 501, 510, 513, 519, 521, 534, 540, 688, 1323, 1360, 4294), maintenance of normal vision (ID 508, 510, 513, 519, 529, 540, 688, 2905, 4294), maintenance of normal cardiac function (ID 510, 688, 1360), “maternal health; pregnancy and nursing” (ID 514), “to fulfil increased omega-3 fatty acids need during pregnancy” (ID 539), “skin and digestive tract epithelial cells maintenance” (ID 525), enhancement of mood (ID 536), “membranes cell structure” (ID 4295), “anti-inflammatory action” (ID 4688) and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4719) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal. 2011;9(4):2078. Available from: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2078