DHA

Brenna JT, Carlson SE. Docosahexaenoic acid and human brain development: evidence that a dietary supply is needed for optimal development. J Hum Evol. 2014 Dec;77:99–106. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24780861 

Brenna JT, Varamini B, Jensen RG, Diersen-Schade DA, Boettcher JA, Arterburn LM. Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid concentrations in human breast milk worldwide. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1457–64. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17556680 

Hadley KB, Ryan AS, Forsyth S, Gautier S, Salem N. The Essentiality of Arachidonic Acid in Infant Development. Nutrients. 2016 Apr 12;8(4):216. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27077882 

World Health Organization (WHO). Interim Summary of Conclusions and Dietary Recommendations on Total Fat & Fatty Acids. 2008 Nov 10; Available from: https://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/FFA_summary_rec_conclusion.pdf?ua=1

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (UN FAO). Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition: Report of an expert consultation. 2008 Nov; Available from: http://foris.fao.org/preview/25553-0ece4cb94ac52f9a25af77ca5cfba7a8c.pdf

The National Academy of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press; 2005. 1331 p. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12449285 

Omega-3 Fatty Acids:  Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [Internet]. National Institute of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. 2018 [cited 2018 Jul 12]. Available from: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional/ 

Keim SA, Branum AM. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish among US children 12–60 months of age. Maternal & Child Nutrition [Internet]. 2013 Sep 13 [cited 2018 Aug 17];11(4):987–98. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12077 

Madden SMM, Garrioch CF, Holub BJ. Direct diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty acids in children 4 to 8 years old. J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):528–32. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158221 

Harika R, C Cosgrove M, Osendarp S, Verhoef P, Zock P. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: A systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries. Vol. 106. 2011. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21554818 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2018. Nutrient Intakes from Food and Beverages: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, by Gender and Age, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2015-2016. [Internet]. Available from: www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg 

Anderson, Pauline. (2013, July 13). Low Omega-3 in Kids Linked to Behavior, Cognitive Deficits. Retrieved from: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/808285  

Innis SM. Dietary (n-3) fatty acids and brain development. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):855–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17374644 

Ryan L, Symington AM. Algal-oil supplements are a viable alternative to fish-oil supplements in terms of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA). Journal of Functional Foods [Internet]. 2015 Dec 1 [cited 2018 Jul 11];19:852–8. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464614002229 

Neubronner J, Schuchardt JP, Kressel G, Merkel M, von Schacky C, Hahn A. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in response to long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation from triacylglycerides versus ethyl esters. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb;65(2):247–54. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21063431 

Harris WS, Pottala JV, Sands SA, Jones PG. Comparison of the effects of fish and fish-oil capsules on the n 3 fatty acid content of blood cells and plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1621–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18065578 

Arterburn LM, Oken HA, Bailey Hall E, Hamersley J, Kuratko CN, Hoffman JP. Algal-oil capsules and cooked salmon: nutritionally equivalent sources of docosahexaenoic acid. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jul;108(7):1204–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589030 

Mathews SA, Oliver WT, Phillips OT, Odle J, Diersen-Schade DA, Harrell RJ. Comparison of Triglycerides and Phospholipids as Supplemental Sources of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Piglets. The Journal of Nutrition [Internet]. 2002 Oct 1;132(10):3081–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.10.3081 

Carnielli V, Verlato G, Pederzini F, Luijendijk I, Boerlage A, Pedrotti D, et al. Intestinal absorption of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants fed breast milk or formula. Vol. 67. 1998. 97 p. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9440382 

Barrow CJ, Nolan C, Holub BJ. Bioequivalence of encapsulated and microencapsulated fish-oil supplementation. Journal of Functional Foods [Internet]. 2009 Jan 1;1(1):38–43. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464608000078 

Freund Levi Y, Vedin I, Cederholm T, Basun H, Faxén Irving G, Eriksdotter M, et al. Transfer of omega-3 fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier after dietary supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-rich omega-3 fatty acid preparation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: the OmegAD study. J Intern Med. 2014 Apr;275(4):428–36. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24410954

Rapoport SI, Ramadan E, Basselin M. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain from plasma, as an in vivo biomarker of brain DHA metabolism and neurotransmission. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2011 Nov;96(1–4):109–13. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21704722 

Kuratko CN, Barrett EC, Nelson EB, Norman S. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review. Nutrients [Internet]. 2013 Jul 19 [cited 2018 Jul 10];5(7):2777–810. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3738999/ 

Nyaradi A, Li J, Hickling S, Foster J, Oddy WH. The role of nutrition in children’s neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood. Front Hum Neurosci [Internet]. 2013 Mar 26 [cited 2018 Jul 10];7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3607807/ 

Brenna JT, Lapillonne A. Background paper on fat and fatty acid requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Ann Nutr Metab. 2009;55(1–3):97–122. Available from: https://www.karger.com/Article/PDF/228998 

Hsieh AT, Brenna JT. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid but not arachidonic acid influences central nervous system fatty acid status in baboon neonates. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids [Internet]. 2009;81(2–3):105–10. Available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19524425 

Crawford MA, Casperd NM, Sinclair AJ. The long chain metabolites of linoleic and linolenic acids in liver and brain in herbivores and carnivores. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry [Internet]. 1976 Jan 1;54(3):395–401. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0305049176902649 

Tyburczy C, Kothapalli KSD, Park WJ, Blank BS, Bradford KL, Zimmer JP, et al. Heart arachidonic acid is uniquely sensitive to dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in domestic piglets. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids [Internet]. 2011 Dec;85(6):335–43. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3208738/ 

Richardson AJ, Burton JR, Sewell RP, Spreckelsen TF, Montgomery P. Docosahexaenoic acid for reading, cognition and behavior in children aged 7-9 years: a randomized, controlled trial (the DOLAB Study). PLoS ONE. 2012;7(9):e43909. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22970149 

Dalton A, Wolmarans P, Witthuhn RC, van Stuijvenberg ME, Swanevelder SA, Smuts CM. A randomised control trial in schoolchildren showed improvement in cognitive function after consuming a bread spread, containing fish flour from a marine source. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Mar;80(2–3):143–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19201180 

Colombo J, Carlson SE, Cheatham CL, Shaddy DJ, Kerling EH, Thodosoff JM, et al. Long-term effects of LCPUFA supplementation on childhood cognitive outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr [Internet]. 2013 Aug [cited 2018 Jul 12];98(2):403–12. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712550/ 

Aberg MAL, Aberg N, Brisman J, Sundberg R, Winkvist A, Torén K. Fish intake of Swedish male adolescents is a predictor of cognitive performance. Acta Paediatr. 2009 Mar;98(3):555–60. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19006530 

Kim J-L, Winkvist A, Aberg M a. I, Aberg N, Sundberg R, Torén K, et al. Fish consumption and school grades in Swedish adolescents: a study of the large general population. Acta Paediatr. 2010 Jan;99(1):72–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19817726 

de Groot RHM, Ouwehand C, Jolles J. Eating the right amount of fish: inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2012 Mar;86(3):113–7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265194 

Baym CL, Khan NA, Monti JM, Raine LB, Drollette ES, Moore RD, et al. Dietary lipids are differentially associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory in prepubescent children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 May;99(5):1026–32. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24522447 

Zhang J, Hebert JR, Muldoon MF. Dietary fat intake is associated with psychosocial and cognitive functioning of school-aged children in the United States. J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):1967–73. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16046724 

Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Abate ML, Kuczek T, Burges JR. Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning, and health problems. Physiology & Behavior [Internet]. 1996 Apr 1 [cited 2018 Jul 12];59(4):915–20. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0031938495022074 

Richardson AJ, Montgomery P. The Oxford-Durham study: a randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics. 2005 May;115(5):1360–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15867048 

Sinn N, Bryan J, Wilson C. Cognitive effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a randomised controlled trial. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008 May;78(4–5):311–26. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18514501 

Sinn N, Bryan J. Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on  learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Apr;28(2):82–91. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17435458 

Bélanger SA, Vanasse M, Spahis S, Sylvestre M-P, Lippé S, L’heureux F, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Paediatr Child Health. 2009 Feb;14(2):89–98. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19436468 

Richardson AJ, Puri BK. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;26(2):233–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11817499 

Hirayama S, Hamazaki T, Terasawa K. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-containing food administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Mar;58(3):467–73. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14985685 

Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L, Kuczek T, Grevstad N, Mahon A, et al. EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors. Lipids. 2003 Oct;38(10):1007–21. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14669965 

Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Itomura M, Asaoka E, Nagao Y, Nishimura N, et al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults. A placebo-controlled double-blind study. J Clin Invest [Internet]. 1996 Feb 15 [cited 2018 Jul 12];97(4):1129–33. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC507162/ 

Itomura M, Hamazaki K, Sawazaki S, Kobayashi M, Terasawa K, Watanabe S, et al. The effect of fish oil on physical aggression in schoolchildren — a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry [Internet]. 2005 Mar 1 [cited 2018 Jul 12];16(3):163–71. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095528630400230X 

Sontrop J, Campbell MK. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: a review of the evidence and a methodological critique. Prev Med. 2006 Jan;42(1):4–13. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16337677 

Nemets H, Nemets B, Apter A, Bracha Z, Belmaker RH. Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;163(6):1098–100. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16741212 

Stoll AL, Severus WE, Freeman MP, Rueter S, Zboyan HA, Diamond E, et al. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 May;56(5):407–12. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10232294 

Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and brain, eye and nerve development (ID 501, 513, 540), maintenance of normal brain function (ID 497, 501, 510, 513, 519, 521, 534, 540, 688, 1323, 1360, 4294), maintenance of normal vision (ID 508, 510, 513, 519, 529, 540, 688, 2905, 4294), maintenance of normal cardiac function (ID 510, 688, 1360), “maternal health; pregnancy and nursing” (ID 514), “to fulfil increased omega-3 fatty acids need during pregnancy” (ID 539), “skin and digestive tract epithelial cells maintenance” (ID 525), enhancement of mood (ID 536), “membranes cell structure” (ID 4295), “anti-inflammatory action” (ID 4688) and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4719) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal. 2011;9(4):2078. Available from: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2078 


ALA

World Health Organization (WHO). Interim Summary of Conclusions and Dietary Recommendations on Total Fat & Fatty Acids. 2008 Nov 10; Available from: https://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/FFA_summary_rec_conclusion.pdf?ua=1

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (UN FAO). Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition: Report of an expert consultation. 2008 Nov; Available from: http://foris.fao.org/preview/25553-0ece4cb94ac52f9a25af77ca5cfba7a8c.pdf

The National Academy of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press; 2005. 1331 p. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12449285 

Omega-3 Fatty Acids:  Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [Internet]. National Institute of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. 2018 [cited 2018 Jul 12]. Available from: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional/ 

Keim SA, Branum AM. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish among US children 12–60 months of age. Maternal & Child Nutrition [Internet]. 2013 Sep 13 [cited 2018 Aug 17];11(4):987–98. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12077 

Madden SMM, Garrioch CF, Holub BJ. Direct diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty acids in children 4 to 8 years old. J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):528–32. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158221 

Harika R, C Cosgrove M, Osendarp S, Verhoef P, Zock P. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: A systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries. Vol. 106. 2011. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21554818 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2018. Nutrient Intakes from Food and Beverages: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, by Gender and Age, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2015-2016. [Internet]. Available from: www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg 

Innis SM. Dietary (n-3) fatty acids and brain development. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):855–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17374644 

Stark AH, Crawford MA, Reifen R. Update on alpha-linolenic acid. Nutr Rev [Internet]. 2008 Jun 1 [cited 2018 Jul 11];66(6):326–32. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article/66/6/326/1840653

Burdge GC. Metabolism of alpha-linolenic acid in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Sep;75(3):161–8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16828546 

Moini H, Packer L, Saris N-EL. Antioxidant and prooxidant activities of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002 Jul 1;182(1):84–90. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12127266

 

Choline

Choline - Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [Internet]. National Institute of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. 2018 [cited 2018 Jul 12]. Available from: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Choline-HealthProfessional/ 

Zeisel SH, da Costa K-A. Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Public Health. Nutr Rev [Internet]. 2009 Nov [cited 2018 Jul 12];67(11):615–23. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2782876/ 

Zeisel SH. The Fetal Origins of Memory: The Role of Dietary Choline in Optimal Brain Development. J Pediatr [Internet]. 2006 Nov [cited 2018 Jul 11];149(5 Suppl):S131–6. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430654/ 

Blusztajn JK. Choline, a vital amine. Science. 1998;281(5378):794–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9714685 

Zeisel SH. Nutritional Importance of Choline for Brain Development. Journal of the American College of Nutrition [Internet]. 2004 Dec [cited 2018 Jul 11];23(sup6):621S-626S. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07315724.2004.10719433 


EPA

World Health Organization (WHO). Interim Summary of Conclusions and Dietary Recommendations on Total Fat & Fatty Acids. 2008 Nov 10; Available from: https://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/FFA_summary_rec_conclusion.pdf?ua=1 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (UN FAO). Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition: Report of an expert consultation. 2008 Nov; Available from: http://foris.fao.org/preview/25553-0ece4cb94ac52f9a25af77ca5cfba7a8c.pdf

The National Academy of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press; 2005. 1331 p. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12449285

Omega-3 Fatty Acids:  Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [Internet]. National Institute of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. 2018 [cited 2018 Jul 12]. Available from: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional/ 

Keim SA, Branum AM. Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish among US children 12–60 months of age. Maternal & Child Nutrition [Internet]. 2013 Sep 13 [cited 2018 Aug 17];11(4):987–98. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12077 

Madden SMM, Garrioch CF, Holub BJ. Direct diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty acids in children 4 to 8 years old. J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):528–32. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158221 

Harika R, C Cosgrove M, Osendarp S, Verhoef P, Zock P. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: A systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries. Vol. 106. 2011. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21554818 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2018. Nutrient Intakes from Food and Beverages: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, by Gender and Age, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2015-2016. [Internet]. Available from: www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg 

Innis SM. Dietary (n-3) fatty acids and brain development. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):855–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17374644 

Neubronner J, Schuchardt JP, Kressel G, Merkel M, von Schacky C, Hahn A. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in response to long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation from triacylglycerides versus ethyl esters. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb;65(2):247–54. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21063431 

Harris WS, Pottala JV, Sands SA, Jones PG. Comparison of the effects of fish and fish-oil capsules on the n 3 fatty acid content of blood cells and plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1621–5. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18065578 

Barrow CJ, Nolan C, Holub BJ. Bioequivalence of encapsulated and microencapsulated fish-oil supplementation. Journal of Functional Foods [Internet]. 2009 Jan 1;1(1):38–43. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464608000078 

Germano M, Meleleo D, Montorfano G, Adorni L, Negroni M, Berra B, et al. Plasma, red blood cells phospholipids and clinical evaluation after long chain omega-3 supplementation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nutr Neurosci. 2007 Apr;10(1–2):1–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17539477 

Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L, Kuczek T, Grevstad N, Mahon A, et al. EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors. Lipids. 2003 Oct;38(10):1007–21. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14669965 

Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and brain, eye and nerve development (ID 501, 513, 540), maintenance of normal brain function (ID 497, 501, 510, 513, 519, 521, 534, 540, 688, 1323, 1360, 4294), maintenance of normal vision (ID 508, 510, 513, 519, 529, 540, 688, 2905, 4294), maintenance of normal cardiac function (ID 510, 688, 1360), “maternal health; pregnancy and nursing” (ID 514), “to fulfil increased omega-3 fatty acids need during pregnancy” (ID 539), “skin and digestive tract epithelial cells maintenance” (ID 525), enhancement of mood (ID 536), “membranes cell structure” (ID 4295), “anti-inflammatory action” (ID 4688) and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4719) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal. 2011;9(4):2078. Available from: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2078